Samuel J. Palmisano on IBM

Samuel J. Palmisano, who steps down on this week after nearly a decade as chief executive of I.B.M., knows how to drive change in a big company.

When so much of the study of business innovation focuses on start-ups and entrepreneurs, he says in an interview with the NYT that his guiding framework boils down to four questions:

1. “Why would someone spend their money with you — so what is unique about you?”

2. “Why would somebody work for you?”

3. “Why would society allow you to operate in their defined geography — their country?”

4. “And why would somebody invest their money with you?”